PHAR 5091.008


Course Name: Neural Substrates of Regulatory Behaviors: Peptides and Monoamines


Course Director: Dr. Tom Cunningham


Course Content: Curt Richter identified behavior as a critical component for homeostasis in his pioneering work on sodium appetite. This course will review current studies that have identified peptide (angiotensin, vasopressin and oxytocin) and monoamine (norepinprhine, 5-HT, and dopamine) transmitter systems involved in water intake and sodium appetite.


Grading: Students will write a 1-2 paragraph summary for each paper on the reading list and be expected to participate in class discussions. At the end of class, they will be required to turn in a 5-10 page paper describing an original experiment based on the reading list and class discussions. The topic for the paper will be approved by the instructor. Grades will be assigned based on paper summaries (30%), class participation (30%), and the research paper (40%) using an A-F scale.


Pre-requisites: Consent of instructor


Credit Hours: 1 credit


Papers: (1-8, 10) (9)



1. Bai D and Renaud LP. ANG II AT1 receptors induce depolarization and inward current in rat median preoptic neurons in vitro. American Journal of Physiology 275: R632-639, 1998.


2. Bai D and Renaud LP. Median preoptic nucleus neurons: an in vitro patch-clamp analysis of their intrinsic properties and noradrenergic receptors in the rat. Neuroscience 83: 905-916, 1998.


3. Blackburn RE, Demko AD, Hoffman GE, Stricker EM, and Verbalis JG. Central oxytocin inhibition of angiotensin-induced salt appetite in rats. American Journal of Physiology 263: R1347-1353, 1992.


4. Fitts DA, Thornton SN, Ruhf AA, Zierath DK, Johnson AK, and Thunhorst RL. Effects of central oxytocin receptor blockade on water and saline intake, mean arterial pressure, and c-Fos expression in rats. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative & Comparative Physiology 285: R1331-1339, 2003.


5. McKinley MJ and Johnson AK. The physiological regulation of thirst and fluid intake. News in Physiological Sciences 19: 1-6, 2004.


6. Menani JV, Barbosa SP, De Luca LA, Jr., De Gobbi JI, and Johnson AK.
Serotonergic mechanisms of the lateral parabrachial nucleus and cholinergic-induced sodium appetite. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative & Comparative Physiology 282: R837-841, 2002.


7. Roitman MF, Na E, Anderson G, Jones TA, and Bernstein IL. Induction of a salt appetite alters dendritic morphology in nucleus accumbens and sensitizes rats to amphetamine. Journal of Neuroscience 22: RC225, 2002.


8. Tanaka J, Hayashi Y, Nomura S, Miyakubo H, Okumura T, and Sakamaki K. Angiotensinergic and noradrenergic mechanisms in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus participate in the drinking response induced by activation of the subfornical organ in rats. Behav Brain Res 118: 117-122, 2001.


9. Tanaka J, Hayashi Y, Yamato K, Miyakubo H, and Nomura M. Involvement of serotonergic systems in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in sodium and water intake: a microdialysis study in the rat. Neuroscience Letters 357: 41-44, 2004.


10. Zimmerman MC, Lazartigues E, Lang JA, Sinnayah P, Ahmad IM, Spitz DR, and Davisson RL. Superoxide mediates the actions of angiotensin II in the central nervous system.[see comment]. Circulation Research 91: 1038-1045, 2002.